# paper

## Paper Review #15: Glassine

Issue Number:
15
In the search for a translucent paper we came across glassine by Modulor.

One aspect of paper that is of particular interest to tessellators is its translucency, so finding a translucent paper to test was high on my list. One such paper is Glassine.

Glassine is made exclusively from cellulose. It is very thin, smooth, and is both air- and water-resistant. It is translucent unless dyes are added to color it or make it opaque. After pressing and drying, the paper is passed through a stack of alternating steel and fiber-covered rolls (called supercalendering) that flatten the paper fibers. This process produces a firm, yet very thin paper with a glossy effect.

Color is added in the pulp stage. The colorless version is food-safe, grease-proof, pH-neutral, as well as chlorine- and acid-free. This is why glassine is often used for food packaging and storing films and documents.

Finding a specific brand to use required me to apply some detective skills. I discovered that the paper sold on the Modulor site is probably made and distributed by Folia Paper from Bringmann, Germany. It is a medium sized company with a huge variety of papers for the hobby and craft market.

Modulor say that "The folding sheets made from glassine paper are translucent, very hardwearing and are easy to work with. When translucent paper is folded there are always new color nuances and shades appearing because each fold concentrates and darkens the previous color tone. Objects made from folded glassine paper are particularly impressive when hung in a window."

Sounds like a good starting point for an origami paper, doesn't it?

## Properties

1. The colors are basic and uninspiring.

Thickness: The measured weight is 40gsm. The thickness measurement is 31 microns, which is by far the thinnest paper we tried (Onion Skin was 46 microns).
2. Sizes: From Folia you get 10cm, 15cm and 20cm squares. From Modulor you get A4 and full sheets of 70cm×100cm. I believe other producers have many other options.
3. Colors: The catalogue lists 11 entries. Four of them are a light version of the usual dominant colors: green, red, blue and yellow. All colors are semi-transparent. The color is soaked into the pulp, so when looking into the light the dense parts in the paper are less transparent and darker.
4. Paper Coloring or Colorability: Although the paper is waterproof, when I used Ecoline water color, the paper curled a lot. Even when it was dried flattened it still had large ripples all over it. The result was not nice at all.
5. Texture: Very smooth to the touch.

6. Photogenic: The colors are a problem, there's not enough variety. But, and it is a big but - the smooth surfaces, the sharp creases and the accurate results make a wonderful sight, and promise great photo opportunities.
7. Aging and Wear and Tear: The numbers in the test machine are 172 and 215 (with and against the grain), which are the smallest numbers we have seen here, but as it's the thinnest paper, it does make sense. The paper is acid-free, which should promise little change in color through the years. 4 out of 10.
8. Memory: Very good, almost perfect. A sharp crease makes the folded flap go completely flat. 9.5 out of 10.
9. Forgiveness: Not good. You should be very careful when you try to reverse a fold line. If you trying to speed things up you may find yourself making a new crease instead of reversing the existing one. Nevertheless, by being careful, you can reverse creases succeessfully. 6 out of 10.
10. Tensile Strength: We refer here to the maximum stress the paper can undergo while being stretched or pulled. With the grain, the paper can hold up to 3.8 kg before tearing; but only 1.4 kg against the grain. Those numbers are much like Kraft paper. 8 out of 10.
11. Bending Resistance: This section rates the amount of force you need to apply to get a sharp crease and how strong the paper is while being curved. This paper has a plastic feeling and it resists being shaped into curved lines. There are no machine numbers since the paper didn't generate enough resistance for the sensors to feel it. 4 out of 10.
12. Where to buy: Surprisingly, colored Glassine is not a common product, but it is available

## Test results

Simple models are sharp and clean.

For simple folds, this is a highly suitable paper. All creases are sharp, reversing the folds when raising wings asks for determination, but is no big deal here. The white paper is semi-transparent and the result is accurate and clean.

### Action model

We got good results for action models, except for the un-jumping frog.

#### Barking Dog by Gadi Vishne, 15×15cm

The dog worked just fine, so no problems with a push mechanism.

I think this is the most accurate flapping bird I have ever made. The two wings move in perfect coordination. The paper is quite noisy when it flaps!

The frog hardly jumps, probably because it's such a thin paper, and I couldn't feel the difference between with and against the grain.

### Tessellation

#### Pineapple tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 28×16cm

This paper is highly suitable for tessellations with backlighting.

Folding the grid took a very long time. Reversing each fold line carefully slowed me down. However, there are benefits to this paper. The crease lines are highly visible, a beautiful image by itself, and so helpful while folding. The collapse was just as slow, but much easier, since the paper is highly responsive and snaps into place perfectly. Moreover, this is the most precise fold I have made and not because of me. Seeing all the creases as whitish lines and being so thin are the two reasons for that. Now raise the paper to the light and you can see the final jewel in the crown - the transparency has a fabulous effect!

#### Mystery tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 30×30cm

The paper is mostly used for tessellations.

The grid was as tedious and as accurate as before! One downside of this paper is the "paper snakes effect" you get when you slide a crease line. In this model the last steps require squashing the paper into little pyramids that caused many tiny snakes like that. The backlit result is very nice, though.

### Complex

#### Pegasus by Satoshi Kamiya, 30×30cm

It's easy to fold multi-layered models.

the main feeling is accurate. You can see the crease lines as if they had been drawn with a white pencil. The transparency allows you to see all layers and whether they fall in the right place or not. Reversing a fold line calls for accuracy when folding the paper in the other direction, since the paper resists it. It's even harder once you reach step 21, since you have to reverse two layers and - even worse - on step 37, the sink. It takes a lot more time than usual to complete. Once you are used to the slow rate of folding, one can enjoy the benefits of this paper. It's easy to be accurate, and creases hold well. Folding all the final details is easy, since the paper is so thin, but it's hard to keep them in place. Corrugating the wings causes no problems at all; the memory of this paper is so strong. The final result is lovely, if not in this unsophisticated color!

#### Owl by Katsuta Kyohei, 30×30cm

It's hard to reverse-fold - only one wing is made correctly.

Making the grid was slow, and so was folding the base. The paper has such a strong ‘memory' that you need to undo the previous fold with a swipe of your hand before making the next one. It's even more of a struggle when you have to create new fold lines with a squash. Step 36 is just such an example. You need to raise a flap and squash a closed corner, but the paper just won't lie down flat. However, the folding process feels very accurate with this paper; crease lines fall exactly where needed, even with multi-layered folds. It's almost as if the paper has no thickness.

I managed to pre-fold the talons precisely as diagrammed, something I rarely manage to do, but it takes a very long time! And then disaster struck. Spreading the wing tips at step 70 means re-collapsing the feathers, but all these reverse folds are almost impossible. I had to reassemble the fold lines one by one, changing the direction of each crease.

### Modular/Unit Origami

#### PowerPuff modular by Ilan Garibi. 30 units, 12×12cm

After having folded the first two modules, I realized Glassine is not a suitable paper for this model. The flaps jump out of the pockets and trying to puff the module was difficult. I quickly realized I was not going to finish this model, and abandoned it.

#### Sonobe Icosahedron modular by Mitsunobu Sonobe. 30 units, 7.5×7.5cm

Modulars - the perfect candidate for Glassine!

After failing with the PowerPuff model, I set my mind to do a classic model with a strong locking mechanism and flat faces. Folding the units was nice. The paper behaves better when smaller in size; it's easier to reverse a fold for some reason. Assembling was much slower. The paper has very little friction, and units tended to fall from my fingers and from the partly assembled model. But all those troubles are but a minor annoyance when you see the final model. I have never seen such an accurate model. All the corners, all faces are perfectly in place. Lovely!

#### Turtle Unit Icosahedron modular by Tomoko Fuse. 30 units, 7.5×7.5cm

The results are unbelievably sharp and accurate.

After seeing how graceful modulars became with this paper, I set to fold one more. I have nothing more to add from the experience with the Sonobe units. The final model is beautiful.

### 3D models

#### Tree Frog and Cicada by Robert Lang, each from 25×25cm

It's hard to shape the small details - look at the eyes. It's better to use other paper for 3D models.

Since the paper is so thin, I tried multi-layered models, such as this cicada. It's very hard to reverse fold lines, as the paper remembers them very strongly. This memory serves you well through the process, but is highly irritating at the final shaping. The paper doesn't forget nor forgive. Every mistake is there to stay! Moreover, a soft spot forms wherever many creases intersect. It's very hard to work with it — have a look at the eyes of this model.

## Final verdict

Holding this paper in your hand you get the feeling it's too much, well, of everything: too thin; too noisy; too shiny. Start to fold it, and you get more "too"s: too slow; too stubborn; too gentle. Finish your model and suddenly all your complaints are gone - you get an unusually accurate model with sharp, clean, flat surfaces, and visible crease lines. Just splendid. But this is true only for the suitable genres.

The perfect niche for Glassine is Modular and tessellations. I have never made such accurate models before! Having the translucent effect with tessellations is pure beauty. With the plastic look and feel, this paper is not recommended for 3D models and puffed shapes. For complex, it's only just OK. With the limited color palette and the problem of adding the finishing touches, it may be best used as a good draft paper for the process only. With simple folds, as well as action models, you will be quite satisfied.

Searching on Flickr returns 264 photographs, of which only 8 are not tessellations. Some of them exploit the benefits of this paper to the max, and go crazy with the grid, like this wonderful 128 triangular grid piece of art by Ralf Konrad.

Bottom line: really only for tessellations and modular models!

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Color palette Texture Aging Memory Forgiveness Tensile Strength Bending Resistance
Glassine 40 10cm, 15cm, 20cm, A4, 70×100cm 11 Smooth Unknown 9.5 6 8 4
Unryu 27 40cm, 60cm 10 Hand-made Many years 7.5 8 10 5
Skytone 90, 176 A4, 63.5cm×96.5cm 12 Smooth, marble-like Unknown 8 9 7 8.5
Kami 60 7.5cm, 15cm, 30cm 200+ Smooth, a bit shiny Many years 8 8 7 8
Ingres 90 B1, B2, A4 5 (previously 21) Rough Years 8 8 7.5 8.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 50 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm 8 hues Glittery; handmade look Unknown 8 8 9 8
Onion Skin 35 A4; Letter; 84.5×64.4cm White Cockled Many years 8 5 8.5 5
Kraft 35 15cm; 30cm; 48cm; 35cm; 40×60cm Light brown Smooth and a little shiny on one side Unknown 9 5 8 4
Crumpled 48-51 64cm by 64cm 28 hues, plus 12 pearled Bumps Less than a year 8 6 4 4
Stardream 110-340 (120 tested) 72cm by 102cm 33 hues Smooth and sparkly Years 9 9 7 9.5
Origamido 10-100 40cm by 50cm and more Very broad Varies Many years 5 to 9 6 to 8 10 2
Printer Paper 50-120 (80 tested) A0-A7, B and C equivalents, ANSI. Many others Mainly white, but many colors smooth and dull Few years 7 9 4 4
Japanese Foil 50 various from 3cm up to 50cm squares 12 colors smooth and shiny Many years 10 4 5 6
Tant 78 7.5cm; 15cm; 30.5cm; 35cm; 110×80cm 100 colors Mildly rough Many years 9 8 6 5
Elephant Hide 110 A4; 70cm×100cm 7 colors smooth Many years 10 7 10 10
Paper Classic Action Tessellation Complex Modular 3D Wet Folding Final score
Glassine 8 8.5 9 7 9.5 7 n/a 8
Unryu n/a n/a n/a 9 n/a 9 n/a 9
Skytone 8 8.5 9 9 9 9 8.5 9
Kami 8.5 8 8 7 9 7.5 7.5 8
Ingres 7 8.5 8 7 7 8 8 7.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 9 8.5 8.5 9.5 8 9 9.5 9+
Onion Skin 8 8 7.5 8.5 6 8 n/a 8
Kraft 8 7 8 9 6 8 n/a 7.5
Crumpled 8 7.5 8.5 8.5 7 8 n/a 8
Stardream 8.5 8.5 9 7.5 7.5 9 9 9
Origamido 8 7.5 7.5 9.5 n/a 9 n/a 9
Printer Paper 7.5 7.5 6 5 6 6.5 n/a 6
Japanese Foil 9 9 6 8 8.5 8 n/a 7
Tant 9 8.5 9 8 9 8 7.5 8
Elephant Hide 8.5 9 10 8 8.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

## Paper Review #14: Unryu

Issue Number:
14
This review is a bit different. We tested different ways of preparing Unryu before folding different animals from the resulting sheets.

Unryu is absolutely beautiful paper, there is no doubt about it. It has long fibers that swim majestically in all directions, a huge palette of colors, translucent appeal, and a perfect wow-effect.

But the moment I got my package and opened it, I knew I was in trouble. Unryu is soft, seems to be too arrogant to hold a crease, or to remember it - hence totally unfit to origami - unless you treat it nicely.

There are multiple ways you can treat such soft paper to make it origami-capable. You can coat it with Methyl Cellulose or paint it with acrylic color. You can make tissue foil by gluing tissue paper, such as Unryu, to kitchen foil, or even make a foil sandwich, by gluing tissue paper to both sides of the aluminum foil. You can use another thin paper, like Onion Skin paper, and glue them together. And finally, you can fight your way through the natural stuff and work with it as it is.

Knowing all that, we realized reviewing Unryu would have to be done differently. No one buys Unryu to cut it to 30 small squares for a modular, nor would they fold a crane or a barking dog from it. So this review will be dedicated to complex and 3D animal models only, the main reason people will buy this paper. And we will test such models on Unryu after treating it in different ways.

There is a lot of confusion about its origin, and what is it made of. I worked hard to gather as much information on it as possible, and here is what I found.

Unryu is part of a family of papers, which are all made from Mulberry. The different papers get their surname depending on the type of Mulberry used, either Kozo (Broussonetia Papyrifera, the paper mulberry), Gampi (Wikstroemia Diplomorpha), or Mitsumata (Edgeworthia Chrysantha).

Unryu is Japanese for cloud dragon paper and the term is used for paper containing strands of Kozo fibre. Unryu papers are distinctively unique in their appearance and are available in many colours, textures, and thicknesses. Like all Mulberry papers, Unryu is made from the bark fibres of the Mulberry tree, and not from the inner wood or pith. Traditionally the paper is made by hand. Some Unryu varieties include shiny metallic silver threads for a shimmering effect and others have leaf inclusions for a natural addition.

We are not the only ones who worship this paper. Many crafter or paper artists have Unryu in their paper collection, to be used for Scrapbooking, Card Making, Collage, Painting, and Lamp Shades.

Since there are many producers of Unryu, we had to choose one vendor and check its merchandise. As usual, I got my Unryu from Nicolas Terry's Origami-Shop in a ten-color pack. There is no official information about it except for its origin: Thailand.

In this paper review we will present the result of most of the options of treatment we could think about. Although this is not a guide for paper treatment, we do linger on this part, just to make sure you understand how we treated the paper before we tested it. I thank Herman Mariano, our mentor in all paper treatment issues, for preparing all papers with me, and for guiding me in the process.

## Properties

1. Product image of sheets of Unryu, as seen at Origami-Shop

Thickness: The measured weight is 27gsm, but it varies slightly from sheet to sheet. The thickness measurement is 75-145 microns on the same sheet. This is most likely a handmade paper, so an even thickness is very hard to achieve, especially with the beautiful paper fibers, which are included in the paper.
2. Sizes: This paper is usually sold in big sheets. Some shops cut them for you in advance. Origami-Shop sells them as 40cm×40cm and 60cm×60cm squares. Paper Mojo sells 25in×37in rectangles (63.5cm×94cm).
3. Colors: Unryu is available in many colors. If you look around in different shops, you'll easily find 50 different shades. The colors tend to have strong hues, but quiet, pastel shades are also available.
4. Paper Coloring or Colorability: With such a large variety of colors available you hardly need to color Unryu yourself. But still, we tested the colorability using Ecoline water color. The white paper absorbed the color quickly and resulted in a paper with a deep blue tint. It took more time than usual to color a full 30cm square. After the sheet had dried it was still a 30cm square, it did not get distorted, as you usually see with handmade papers. (We will later see that Unryu reacts differently when using varnish.)
5. Texture: Beautiful. You can clearly see the long, swirling strands of Kozo, in no specific direction. Unryu is translucent in some parts, more opaque in others. I believe this paper was left to dry in the sun on a smooth surface, so the lower side is smooth and has a little shine to it. The upper part is more textured, you can actually feel the bumps of the fiber clusters.

6. Photogenic: a top model. Unryu is beautiful, beautiful paper. And with the variety of colors available you can make sure your photo will be a hit.
7. Aging and Wear and Tear: The result from the test machine was 1010, second only to Elephant Hide (~1130), which is four times thicker, and Tissue Foil. Its value is better than that of Origamido® (~990). The paper has no acid and should last for many years. 9 out of 10.
8. Memory: Without treatment, this paper has evident memory, but it is much lower than that of average origami paper. Unlike other handmade tissue papers, this brand is not as soft as you could imagine. 7.5 out of 10.
9. Forgiveness: Good. You might think the paper is too fluffy, but it actually has enough resistance and agility to break to the other side nicely. 8 out of 10.
10. Tensile Strength: We refer here to the maximum stress the paper can undergo while being stretched or pulled. We have no numbers from the test machine, because - lo and behold - it failed to tear this paper. The QA employee said he'd never seen something like this before. 10 out of 10.
11. Bending Resistance: This section rates the amount of force you need to apply to get a sharp crease and how strong the paper is while being curved (like during the puffing of the PowerPuff unit; see below). Unryu is a thin paper and the machine needed very little force to bend it. The results were 6 with the grain, and 15 against the grain. This compares to thin Kraft, and is much lower than Tant (54 and 104). 5 out of 10.
12. Where to buy: Since this paper appeals to many people, not just those in the origami community, you can find it in many paper stores.

## Test results

### Tissue Foil

Preparing the tissue foil; the creases on the foil side are ugly.

With the model I wanted to fold in mind, I chose the green paper. It was pasted with 3M Super 77, multipurpose adhesive, applied as a spray. For the foil we used kitchen foil. First we cut a quarter out of the 60cm folded sheet. Luckily, our local brand of kitchen foil is 30cm wide, too, and we cut a strip that was about 40cm long. Spreading the papers on old newspapers outside, I sprayed both with an even coat of the 3M adhesive, and let it dry for 7 minutes (as instructed to have a strong bonding). When ready I held the green paper in the top two corners, and Herman attached the two lower corners to the foil. Then slowly I lowered the top edge while Herman smoothed the tissue with a small cloth. We tried to align the papers (since both are 30 cm in length), but we couldn't, and we used rulers to cut it to a square. The paper was ready.

#### Bullfrog by Roman Diaz, 29×29cm

You can see the foil emerge from underneath the tissue.

The general feeling is Blahhhh. All fold lines looks rough from the inside. You cannot feel the paper while folding, just feel the foil. Every reverse-fold is a struggle. In step 24 you are asked to bring the flaps forward; for that you need to reverse relatively big flaps, which is very difficult to do. Sinking the legs in steps 30 and 37 resulted in a lot of crimps badly shaped on the foil side. With so many crimps on the foil side, I soon got lost and couldn't identify the crease lines referenced. Because of that, the last steps were done by guessing and some brute force shaping. The final result is far from satisfying. Although it is foil, I found it resisted the shaping of the head. Moreover, I get sparkles of shiny foil here and there, and the lower jaw is made from the foil side.

An afterthought I had is to make the foil just a little bit smaller then the tissue paper, so you will not have this shiny effect all over the edges of the paper.

### Tissue-Onion Skin Paper sandwich

For this preparation technique I used the red paper. I applied the 3M super 77 glue to this sheet of Unryu, as well as a sheet of Onion Skin paper. Again, I laid the papers with the glue applied to dry for seven minutes. Then I asked a helpful hand to hold the edges of the red paper, while I held it with the tip of my fingers on the bottom. I pulled it slowly downward, until the red paper touched the Onion Skin paper, and then I smeared it slowly with a hand movement from side to side, each time fastening a further two to three centimeters (1 inch). Still, at the end some snakes of squashed paper emerged and I smoothed them with a strong hand and my bone folder. Since I used a big sheet of Onion Skip (it is cheap, and I have a big stock of it), I had to cut away the surplus paper.

#### Rose by Toshikazu Kawasaki, 20×20cm

Onion Skin nicely complements Unryu.

The folding experience was much better. The Onion Skin layer allows you to see the crease lines more clearly than on pure Unryu, and even the tissue foil. Reversing is still a pain in your fingers, yet again, it worked much better than while folding the bullfrog from tissue foil. The general feeling of this preparation of Unryu is good. The paper has enough resistance and follows your leads. The curling part was the best - you get the feeling this paper can never be torn; you can pinch it, stretch it, shape it at will, and it will follow suit. The result is stunning, the texture is just wonderful.

### Tissue-MC-Tissue

Preparing Double Tissue paper; the second layer of Unryu is smaller.

Brown and white are the perfect colours for the color-change sheep by Hideo Komatsu we wanted to fold. I cut a 34cm square of the brown paper, brushed MC on one side, and lowered the white 30cm paper slowly, with the help of Herman. We let it dry for an hour, and then cut the surplus brown paper.

#### Sheep by Hideo Komatsu, 30×30cm

The texture of the white Unryu is a perfect fit for the sheep.

The paper we got is unique. You can feel how your fingernails make a real dent in the paper, and the clusters of fibers are easily felt. Our bonding procedure wasn't perfect, and sometimes the papers separated. It's very hard to see crease lines, and while trying to make a sink fold, I had to guess where the lines I had to reverse were. The paper in the legs is too thick, and the head won't stay flat, but tends to be opened to the sides. The model has a very clever way of locking both sides of the animal, and preventing the legs from spreading, but with this soft paper it has very little effect. Still, this is visually the perfect paper for this sheep, there is no doubt about it.

### Tissue-Foil-Tissue sandwich

We cut the square using a heavy metal ruler.

Making a sandwich from Unryu, foil, and another sheet of Unryu asks for accurate placing of the sheets. Although you can cut all three papers to the same size, this is not recommended. We suggest you cut the two sheets of Unryu a bit bigger than the foil. We again used the 3M 77 spray glue, so our sandwich consists of a layer of tissue paper, a layer of adhesive spray, another layer of adhesive spray (applied to the foil side), the foil itself, two more layers of glue, and the final layer of tissue paper - so all in all seven layers. You might think you will get a thick paper, but the result still feels like it's as thin as Elephant Hide.

#### Panda by Hideo Komatsu

To avoid the foil from peeking through, cut the foil slightly smaller than the tissue layers.

Folding with this tissue-foil-tissue sandwich was even better than the first two folding experiences. All creases are visible, but reverse-folding is still problematic. Another problem arises when you try to make a straight line that falls on a cluster of fibers. The paper breaks on the edge of this cluster, and not where you want it. The shorter the fold line is - the bigger the problem is. The three layer paper felt really nice, but from time to time the inner layers separated, making a little mountain inside a valley fold. This is probably the result of not spreading the glue evenly enough.

The best part is shaping the panda to its rounded contours. It is done so easily, and the model just holds it perfectly. If only I had been smart enough to cut the foil to a smaller square, I would have been very happy with the result. Since I didn't, you can see the foil emerge here and there, which ruins the beautiful contrast between the black and white side of the paper.

### Double-Coated MC Tissue

When the paper is soaked with MC, make sure it doesn't stick to the glass.

I cut a 42cm square from the Ivory Natural shade to get a nice 40cm square for folding. I know that paper changes its proportions when soaked with liquid, so I didn't try to cut the right size before coating. I made my MC thick as a paste a day before, and applied it on the paper that rested on a glass plate. Using a wide brush I quickly covered one side, picked it up from the glass and moved it aside, to a clean area of the glass. This allowed me to clean the glass below the paper from all residue of glue. I continued to raise it gently and move it from side to side to make sure the paper would not stick to the glass. The first layer had dried after about 30 minutes, and I turned it over to coat the other side using the same procedure. An hour later everything was ready for cutting my square. Using two rulers to mark 37cm, I added a third ruler perpendicular to the other two and used a handheld rotary cutter to cut the square. A rotary cutter is much better than a knife, which can move the paper, or create a tear when you move it over the paper.

#### Pegasus by Satoshi Kamiya, 40×40cm

The pegasus is stable and was fun to fold.

My square was perfect, judged by the first two diagonal folds. The paper is much more responsive and can be folded nicely. Reversing a fold is quite doable, you just need to go slowly. The main problem is all the creases are practically invisible. I could hardly see them on this ivory paper. For the closed sink in step 37, I pre-creased the flap in both directions, making it easier than expected. Finishing the body and finalizing the small details was like going downhill on a bike, no real effort is needed. The multi-layer steps are easy to do, and shaping, too. The final model does not need any extra treatment. It does feel a bit soft and tender, but the wings are stretched backward and stay there, and the legs can hold the model.

### Colored and Varnished Tissue

I colored a white sheet using Ecoline water color. The paper absorbed a lot of water color, and took more than 40 minutes to dry. When dried, I was surprised to see that the dimensions of the sheet had not changed, and that the coloring was very even. Next I added a layer of a mat water-based varnish. Starting from the center, I brushed it left and right, outward. I let it dry for an hour, and measured the size again. This time the effect was a major shrinking, the varnish coating shortened the paper by two to three millimeters!

#### Rabbit by Hideo Komatsu, 22×22cm

The color was absorbed evenly as time passed.

I cut the prepared sheet down to a 22cm square, and started to fold. I immediately ran into difficulties. The long fibers were no longer flexible. They absorbed a lot of the varnish, and were now stiff and hard to fold. Reversing a simple valley to a mountain was now a major issue. The paper just refused to do so, and if not super careful, you just made another crease, rather than following the existing one. The general feeling is like folding a thin sheet of plastic. The ears, with many layers to be squashed, are doable, but you cannot perform the step precisely. Overcoming all those obstacles, by working slow and determined, I managed to finish it, and the result is good, I'd even say very good.

### Untreated Tissue

#### Rat by Eric Joisel, 10×10cm

Surprisingly, small models can be folded from untreated Unryu.

A thin paper asks for small models. Surprisingly, the rat was easy to fold. Although the paper hardly holds a crease, I managed to complete the rat. Shaping is almost impossible, since the paper never stays in the right posture. The final model tends to unfold itself, especially the legs.

#### Owl by Katsuat Kyohei, 30×30cm

Even this owl could be folded from untreated Unryu, although the details are hard to get right.

Seeing the rat that Gadi had folded from untreated Unryu, I had to try it, too. And what a big surprise I had here. First, I managed to finish the model, and even more, it looks very nice. While holding it, the paper gives the feeling that it is not suitable for folding without treatment, but when actually folding it you discover it is responsive. Crease line are hard to see, but reversing a fold (which is done a lot in this Box Pleating model) is doable if you work slowly and search for the break in the paper. Squash-folding is a problem, because the paper can go flat anywhere, and it's hard to feel the right path, but work slowly and you can do it. The big problem came with the talons. Sinking such small parts was difficult, and I was not so happy with the result. Actually, there were no results; I just used brute force to bring the paper into place. But this may be the only real problem I encountered while folding. The final model is not firm and refuses to hold its shape, especially the head, beak and wing tips. It's hard to enforce those small flaps to stay in their place with a strong crease.

## Final verdict

There is no verdict here. This paper is a prince and cannot be judged. It will give this unique and beautiful look to your models, and to get that you have to work hard. Pamper your paper and be rewarded.

As to preparation techniques, I would not choose the foil options. I liked the Tissue-Onion Skin sandwich, and the double MC coating. Folding it as it is was a nice experience, but just one layer of MC can prevent all its shortcomings. Double tissue should be used for color-change models. Again, I prefer it without the foil inside.

In Flickr we found 493 results, which shows how popular this paper is. Almost all models folded are intermediate to complex 3D animals. One of the few exceptions is a tessellation made by Eric Gjerde, treated with starch.

There are even more options to treat Unryu, but I do hope you got the hang of it from this review. Don't hesitate to test your ways, and share them with us.

How can we score it? Yes, it's not versatile at all, and can be used mostly for complex or 3D. But it is soooo charming, with sex appeal and you do get mesmerizing results. Choose the right treatment method for your model, and Unryu becomes highly suitable for folding.

Bottom line: enchanting!

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Color palette Texture Aging Memory Forgiveness Tensile Strength Bending Resistance
Unryu 27 40cm, 60cm 10 Hand-made Many years 7.5 8 10 5
Skytone 90, 176 A4, 63.5cm×96.5cm 12 Smooth, marble-like Unknown 8 9 7 8.5
Kami 60 7.5cm, 15cm, 30cm 200+ Smooth, a bit shiny Many years 8 8 7 8
Ingres 90 B1, B2, A4 5 (previously 21) Rough Years 8 8 7.5 8.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 50 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm 8 hues Glittery; handmade look Unknown 8 8 9 8
Onion Skin 35 A4; Letter; 84.5×64.4cm White Cockled Many years 8 5 8.5 5
Kraft 35 15cm; 30cm; 48cm; 35cm; 40×60cm Light brown Smooth and a little shiny on one side Unknown 9 5 8 4
Crumpled 48-51 64cm by 64cm 28 hues, plus 12 pearled Bumps Less than a year 8 6 4 4
Stardream 110-340 (120 tested) 72cm by 102cm 33 hues Smooth and sparkly Years 9 9 7 9.5
Origamido 10-100 40cm by 50cm and more Very broad Varies Many years 5 to 9 6 to 8 10 2
Printer Paper 50-120 (80 tested) A0-A7, B and C equivalents, ANSI. Many others Mainly white, but many colors smooth and dull Few years 7 9 4 4
Japanese Foil 50 various from 3cm up to 50cm squares 12 colors smooth and shiny Many years 10 4 5 6
Tant 78 7.5cm; 15cm; 30.5cm; 35cm; 110×80cm 100 colors Mildly rough Many years 9 8 6 5
Elephant Hide 110 A4; 70cm×100cm 7 colors smooth Many years 10 7 10 10
Paper Classic Action Tessellation Complex Modular 3D Wet Folding Final score
Unryu n/a n/a n/a 9 n/a 9 n/a 9
Skytone 8 8.5 9 9 9 9 8.5 9
Kami 8.5 8 8 7 9 7.5 7.5 8
Ingres 7 8.5 8 7 7 8 8 7.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 9 8.5 8.5 9.5 8 9 9.5 9+
Onion Skin 8 8 7.5 8.5 6 8 n/a 8
Kraft 8 7 8 9 6 8 n/a 7.5
Crumpled 8 7.5 8.5 8.5 7 8 n/a 8
Stardream 8.5 8.5 9 7.5 7.5 9 9 9
Origamido 8 7.5 7.5 9.5 n/a 9 n/a 9
Printer Paper 7.5 7.5 6 5 6 6.5 n/a 6
Japanese Foil 9 9 6 8 8.5 8 n/a 7
Tant 9 8.5 9 8 9 8 7.5 8
Elephant Hide 8.5 9 10 8 8.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

## Paper Review #13: Skytone

Issue Number:
13
You may well never heard of this paper, let alone folded with it. This review will reveal that it's definitely a paper you should try out - and soon!

Looking for a new paper to review, I went through my catalog and was struck by one particular paper. It had a wonderful pastel shade, with a smooth, marbled, appearance; it looked just like a thin version of Elephant Hide. So with that comparison in mind, I had to try it out! I bought a few sheets (one of each color) and in our last origami meeting I presented it to the guys. Oh, what excitement! The next day I made another order of 50 (yes, fifty) sheets for the three of us. It is that good! It is called Skytone, made by Mohawk Papers in the USA.

Mohawk is a fourth-generation family-owned business, started by George O'Connor in 1931 and still owned by the O'Connor family. Since the environment is one of their concerns, they are the first producers in the USA that meet 100% of their electricity needs from wind turbines. They also act according to the FSC certification.

As with most papers, this one is not specifically for origami, but was made for certificates, diplomas, invitations, awards and the like. It is acid free, 30% of it is recycled, and it does look beautiful. So, sure, you can have your wedding invitation printed on it, but can you fold a couple of swans to decorate the tables?

We have tested two thicknesses of paper out of the three available. Here are the results.

## Properties

1. Showing all papers squares for this review

Thickness: The measured weight is 90gsm, exactly as the official data. The thickness measurement is 123-131 microns, similar to Tant.
2. Sizes: There are only two options - A4, and big sheets at a size of 635mm×965mm, which is not in any familiar proportion (neither A, B nor C).
3. Colors: There are 12 pastel shades, with lovely names such as Spring Green, New Bluestone, Aged, Pewter, and more. All shades are very light, with green, blue, pink, yellowish-brownish, and grey hues.
4. Paper Coloring or Colorability: Applying water color resulted in very little buckling, but if you linger with the brush a little too long the color will seep through to the other side. It takes 3 to 4 minutes to dry. There is a change in proportion, but only a minor one.
5. Texture: Smooth to the touch, since they have a Vellum finish, with a parchment grade. And it does look like a parchment. No two sheets are alike due to the process of making them.

6. Photogenic: On the one hand, the texture is wonderful and interesting, but on the other hand - the shades are pale, and without a perfect white balance it's very hard to capture the real hues of it. However, I like it very much.
7. Aging and Wear and Tear: The result from the test machine was 420: not as good as Tant (750) - and even less than Kami (500). The paper is acid free, which should result in little change in color over time, but this is just an inference and not according to experience, since we have none with this paper. 6 out of 10.
8. Memory: Good. Reverse a preliminary fold into a waterbomb base and the paper springs happily into the new position. Reopen a crease and you can feel the bump. 8 out of 10.
9. Forgiveness: Very good. The first fold breaks the paper in a distinctive way so there is no problem in reversing it. 9 out of 10.
10. Tensile Strength: We refer here to the maximum stress the paper can undergo while being stretched or pulled. With the grain, the paper can hold up to 6.6kg before tearing (Printer Paper can hold 7kg); but it can only hold 2.2kg against the grain (2.9kg for Printer Paper). Those numbers are somewhere in between Kami and Printer Paper. 7 out of 10.
11. Bending Resistance: This section rates the amount of force you need to apply to get a sharp crease and how strong the paper is while being curved (like during the puffing of the PowerPuff unit; see below). This is a strong point, in relation to its thickness. The paper is springy and holds curves very well. All in all - very good. 8.5 out of 10.

## Test results

The paper is good for classic use.

This was my first time folding the paper and it felt good. It was stiff, very much like Elephant Hide, but much thinner. The crane requires a sharp beak and tail, but both are a little hard to achieve. The result is firm, strong and stable.

### Action model

For action models it is even better.

#### Barking Dog by Gadi Vishne, 15×15cm

For the Barking Dog I used a colored sheet and it works just fine.

The flapping bird works great and it looks like it might work forever with no signs of fatigue. Also, the wings go up and down symmetrically.

It's easy to feel the difference between with and against the fibers to make the frog jump higher. And it does! It jumps fantastically, not so far but with many somersaults!

### Tessellation

#### Pineapple tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 30×30cm

Almost perfect for tessellation, being thin yet springy with a good memory.

Folding the grid was quick, easy and accurate. Reversing a fold was not as sharp as I thought, but it was also easy and accurate, no problem here. Precreasing went just as well. I thought that the stiffness of the paper would make it even easier, but it didn't. The first stage of the collapse was, well, just as easy. The paper is agile, yet stiff, and the “Snap!” effect is noticeable here. Now, testing a paper for tessellation is all about the collapse. A good paper will collapse easily and cleanly. This is exactly what this paper did. I managed to collapse the model without the help of wooden pins, since the paper has a very good memory.

#### Mystery tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 30×30cm

This model gave a fight, but the backlight result is very satisfying.

This time, folding the grid went slowly for one reason - the fold line is almost invisible. It gets better if you fold the lines twice, since the crease line is more visible this way. Reversing a fold requires some care, since the paper has some resistance to this action. Collapsing the model started slowly. The stiffness, usually a very helpful property, became a burden. The paper had a will of its own and wouldn't at first go where it was intended. Things improved on the next rows, but still, I was a bit disappointed, since the paper was not as good as I thought it would be. To finalize the model I needed to squash it into a sharp corner, which was quite easy to do.

#### Diamond Corrugation Vase by Ilan Garibi, 10×26cm

Enjoying the benefits of this paper with an extra corrugated model.

Since I had anticipated that tessellations would be the bread and butter for this paper, I had to check it with another model - a corrugation, actually. And since it is a thinner paper than usual for tessellations, I tried a small grid. The required grid is 10x26 as well, so my square size was 1cm×1cm. This model requires a lot of resistance from the paper, otherwise the surface just crumples under the pressure. I was glad to see that it worked very well and I had no problems collapsing it. The vase is firm and the molecules are nice and sharp.

### Complex

#### Pegasus by Satoshi Kamiya, 40×40cm

Complex models are easier to fold with it.

First folds are simple, but you can easily tell how stiff this paper is. Spreading it open on step 7 you can see how the centre resists being flattened. Since it is not as thin a paper as would normally be used for complex models, shaping the belly with so many layers is difficult, but still possible. Making the wings, with only two layers, gave a very nice result. As always, the final details are a bit of a fight, and I think I won. I am very happy with the outcome - well proportioned and stands proud!

#### Owl by Katsuta Kyohei, 40×40cm

Almost a perfect paper for Box Pleating models!

What a pleasure to fold! Box pleating needs straight lines and many reverse folds, and this paper just worked great. Even with shaping, the paper is highly responsive. The wings were a true joy, the paper strong enough to hold the pre-creases needed for the rearranging of the layers (step 70), and yet thin enough to allow the many pleats that makes the feathers under the wing. Reversing the head sides caused no tears, unlike many other papers. The talons and the wings were the only hard part. I did manage to get lovely talons, but pleating the tail was too much. The final owl is just gorgeous!

### Modular/Unit Origami

#### PowerPuff modular by Ilan Garibi. 30 units, 12×12cm

Stiff, yet agile, this paper works great with Modulars.

I chose three colors, very light blue, cream and champagne. Cutting went well, and folding the flat units was just as all other folds - easy, sharp and without any problems. Puffing the units was easier than usual; only here and there I hit a bump in the paper that didn't go where I wanted it. Assembling shows another benefit of this paper, the stiffness made it very easy to insert the tab into the pockets, and the next fold locked it perfectly.

### 3D models

#### Rat by Eric Joisel, 15×15cm

You can go really small with it.

The Rat is no easy task, with many layers and sharp points, especially when I try to make it small enough to stand on a two cent coin. This paper handled the multi layers quite well, although the thickness was noticeable. Making straight long crease made me wonder if this paper already knows what a straight line is! The only downside was the thin legs; almost too thin to hold itself properly.

#### Fox Terrier by Francisco Javier Caboblanco, 15×15cm yellow square colored red

Easy to mold with little spray of water.

With less than 10 steps, this dog is ready. In the final position, his legs are wide open, so he can't actually stand. To correct that, I used some wet folding. Spraying a small cloud over the model, I could reshape the legs and head, hold it with tiny clamps, and after a few minutes all is well - the dog stands straight, and the head is shaped at will.

#### Long Tailed Dragon by Matthew Green, 30cm×30cm

Multi-layer model work very good.

This is a complicated model with many layers . I chose it to test the presumed weak points of Skytone. But it just delivered! The number of layers did not affect the beauty of the final model, although it almost tore at the nose, with so many crease lines intersecting there. The legs, although thin, can hold the model.

#### Swan by Yoshihide Momotani, 10cm×10cm

An extra 3D model for the fun of it.

This is a perfect model for this paper; easy to shape, and with a small number of layers. It was a pleasure to fold, and a joy to the eye! Still, do not over-shape, because the paper becomes too soft after some repeated molding.

### Wet Folding

#### Polar Bear by Giang Dinh, 25×25cm

Highly suitable for Wet Folding.

I used the 176gsm paper. Spraying water with a nasal spray, the water covered the paper evenly. It soaked a little, and became easy to mold. The inner fold lines can be done while dry, as I did. To shape the legs, I added some water. The paper was never too soggy; always stayed firm, with no tell-tale color changes or 'tide-marks'. After drying, the model is firm.

## Final verdict

This is a very good origami paper. It is thin enough (just like Tant), strong, remembers crease lines like an elephant, and satisfies many types of fold.

Its strongest point is box pleating, with tessellations a close second. The grid for both is easily creased and it is enjoyable experience. It is stiff enough for action models and modulars will also benefit from that, making model that are easy to assemble and will give a stable result that is able to hold its own weight. The heavy paper is very good for wet folds. It doesn't absorb much water, it dries quickly, and holds the shape accurately.

I find its appearance very appealing, very much like Elephant Hide, but I really would like to see some more dominant colors.

In Flickr the only results were a horse posted by Eyal Reuveni, (beautifully) folded from it, and some stars from me. There is no surprise here, because we both buy from the same vendor. No one else has ever posted a model from this paper, or if they did it's not tagged. Even so, this is a hidden gem!

We gave it a score of 9, which makes it one of the best papers we have tested. There are some weak points, but all in all, we bought 50 sheets.

Bottom line: buy it, fold it, love it!

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Color palette Texture Aging Memory Forgiveness Tensile Strength Bending Resistance
Skytone 90. 176 A4, 63.5cm×96.5cm 12 Smooth, marble-like Unknown 8 9 7 8.5
Kami 60 7.5cm, 15cm, 30cm 200+ Smooth, a bit shiny Many years 8 8 7 8
Ingres 90 B1, B2, A4 5 (previously 21) Rough Years 8 8 7.5 8.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 50 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm 8 hues Glittery; handmade look Unknown 8 8 9 8
Onion Skin 35 A4; Letter; 84.5×64.4cm White Cockled Many years 8 5 8.5 5
Kraft 35 15cm; 30cm; 48cm; 35cm; 40×60cm Light brown Smooth and a little shiny on one side Unknown 9 5 8 4
Crumpled 48-51 64cm by 64cm 28 hues, plus 12 pearled Bumps Less than a year 8 6 4 4
Stardream 110-340 (120 tested) 72cm by 102cm 33 hues Smooth and sparkly Years 9 9 7 9.5
Origamido 10-100 40cm by 50cm and more Very broad Varies Many years 5 to 9 6 to 8 10 2
Printer Paper 50-120 (80 tested) A0-A7, B and C equivalents, ANSI. Many others Mainly white, but many colors smooth and dull Few years 7 9 4 4
Japanese Foil 50 various from 3cm up to 50cm squares 12 colors smooth and shiny Many years 10 4 5 6
Tant 78 7.5cm; 15cm; 30.5cm; 35cm; 110×80cm 100 colors Mildly rough Many years 9 8 6 5
Elephant Hide 110 A4; 70cm×100cm 7 colors smooth Many years 10 7 10 10

Paper Classic Action Tessellation Complex Modular 3D Wet Folding Final score
Skytone 8 8.5 9 9 9 9 8.5 9
Kami 8.5 8 8 7 9 7.5 7.5 8
Ingres 7 8.5 8 7 7 8 8 7.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 9 8.5 8.5 9.5 8 9 9.5 9+
Onion Skin 8 8 7.5 8.5 6 8 n/a 8
Kraft 8 7 8 9 6 8 n/a 7.5
Crumpled 8 7.5 8.5 8.5 7 8 n/a 8
Stardream 8.5 8.5 9 7.5 7.5 9 9 9
Origamido 8 7.5 7.5 9.5 n/a 9 n/a 9
Printer Paper 7.5 7.5 6 5 6 6.5 n/a 6
Japanese Foil 9 9 6 8 8.5 8 n/a 7
Tant 9 8.5 9 8 9 8 7.5 8
Elephant Hide 8.5 9 10 8 8.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

## Paper Review #12: Kami

Issue Number:
12
In this 12th paper review, we'll look at the one paper best known as origami paper: kami, namely from Jong ie Nara.

Kami is simply the word for paper in Japanese, but in the last fifteen years or so it has come to mean 'ordinary' origami paper, the type that can be bought pre-cut in squares everywhere. Unsurprisingly it is the most popular paper for origami and needs little introduction. However there are many, many producers of the classic square, with color on one side and white on the other. For example, the OUSA carries the Toyo brand, distributed in the USA by Mountain Valley Paper company, and available on The Source. But since we cannot review them all we chose to review the paper by Jong Ie Nara (JIN), a South Korean company.

Jong Ie Nara, which means 'Paper World', was founded by Dohun Jung In 1972. Looking through their website you can see that they truly follow their motto: "Let's make a beautiful world together with Jong Ie Nara". Their products can be found in over 68 countries and in December 1998 they established the Jong Ie Nara Museum for paper art.

Their catalogue is immense. I went to look in my 15 cm paper drawer (yes, I do have a drawer for every paper size) for some to fold, and I found Pearl paper, Hologram paper, Duo papers, Melody and many more by JIN, but in this review we are going to focus on the basic product - simple, color on one side origami paper. For the complex models and tessellations I found an old packet of 30cm paper which is not in the catalogue any more, but still can be bought in BOS supplies. For all the others, 15 cm was sufficient.

Four years back, I had the notion that the best paper for my early attempts with tessellations is Kami; it must be called Origami paper for a reason! I was surprised to see it didn't really work. Today, with more than hundred paper types in my collection, I am older and wiser, and will try to see what it is really good for.

## Properties

1. Thickness: The measured weight is 63gsm, while they state it is 60gsm. The thickness is 72 microns, somewhere between Japanese Foil (50 microns) and Printer Paper (105 microns).
2. Sizes: As far as I know, the largest JIN kami available is 30cm (item no. AH20Y202). The most common sizes are 15 cm and 7.5 cm. (Editor's note: Other brands sell larger sheets, for example these 35cm squares.)
3. Colors: Most packs contain the 10 to 12 generic colors (blue, green, red, yellow, black, etc) with strong hues, but there are packs with 36, 50, or even 200 colors. If you include pattern variations, the choice is even wider!
4. Paper Coloring or Colorability: You may ask , "Why would you color Kami?". For some, having exactly the right color is important, or you may want to color the white side. The moment I applied water color by Ecoline, the paper curled a lot, but when dried, and it was dried in less than a minute, it stays as flat as before. There is a tiny change in proportions. Some of the color seeped through to the other side, but besides all that, the result is very nice. It has a silk-like look.
5. Texture: All papers are smooth to the touch. Some colors have a plastic feel and look to them, such as the grey and light brown. The red paper will turn your finger red. The color is spread quite even, with drops of amoebas shaped water marks spread over, which are hardly visible. The paper has a little shine to it.

6. Photogenic: Now, this is really a matter of individual taste. The strong colors, the smooth surface, no real texture; all together may look dull. The white side appears where it shouldn't. For me this is not good enough.
7. Aging and Wear and Tear: The numbers from the test machine are similar to those for Printer paper - 500 and 520. But as kami is thinner, it is relatively speaking stronger and more tear resistant. The paper is acid free, which should promise little change in color through the years, as some of my 3 years modular models prove. 8.5 out of 10.
8. Memory: Good. Reverse preliminary fold into a Waterbomb base and the paper springs happily into the new position. Reopen a crease and you can see and feel the bump. 8 out of 10.
9. Forgiveness: Good, almost very good. There is no problem in reversing a fold. 8 out of 10.
10. Tensile Strength: We refer here to the maximum stress the paper can undergo while being stretched or pulled. With the grain, the paper can hold up to 6.1 Kg before tearing; but only 2.2 against the grain. It's again very similar to Printer paper. 7 out of 10.
11. Bending Resistance: This section rates the amount of force you need to apply to get a sharp crease and how strong the paper is while being curved (like during the puffing of the PowerPuff unit). This brand of Kami is stiffer than most. It curves nicely and you can easily feel the grain direction with your bare hands. All in all - good. 8 out of 10.

## Test results

Classic paper for classic models

Simple models don't ask for much, and this paper is just what is needed. With a model comprising few layers and a simple folding procedure, Kami is just right. There is, however, one issue with this Kami. Usually, during the folding of the crane, the model lies flat, but not this time. Annoyingly, the sides of the head tend to curve . Maybe it's because of the semi-plastic coating?

### Action model

Very good for action models

The JIN Kami is stiffer than usual. All in all, action models work very well.

#### Barking Dog by Gadi Vishne, 15×15cm

The black nosed dog barks again and again, showing the flexibility of the paper.

The red bird flapped perfectly - usually one wing tends to be higher than the other, but here it was perfectly symmetric.

The yellow frog jumps nicely, but not as high. But it makes many somersaults.

### Tessellation

#### Pineapple tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 30×30cm

 While folding is surprisingly easy, the result is too common, and white corners make it unclean. Back light highlights the fold lines.

I chose red. In my experience, red Kami is usually thicker than the rest of the pack, but not this one. While folding the grid, you can feel how soft the paper is. Using a bone folder, the color vanished from the crease line, leaving a white line and red fingers. The creases are easily visible on both sides. Precreases are easy to fold, although the lack of surface tension makes it harder to make a diagonal crease on the grid. During the collapse you get the feeling this paper is gentle and fragile, but still the paper 'breaks' in the right places and thanks to its thinness the layers fall exactly above each other. The final result is clean and sharp, more accurate than most papers I used, and if not for the white points in every corner (where the red just scraped off), it looked very good. With back light the crease lines become transparent, giving the model an interesting look.

#### Mystery tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 30×30cm

The paper is too soft for this model.

I chose the pink paper. Grid went well, and since this model has no pre creases, I went on to the collapse phase. At this stage you need some resistance from the paper, but this one is too soft. I had to use the sharp edge of my bone folder to flatten misplaced layers, and I tore it in one place. Shaping the tip of the pyramids, once again I realized how weak this paper is. The final result is not bad, and unusual (a pink tessellation, imagine that...) With backlight, as always, it's better.

### Complex

#### Pegasus by Satoshi Kamiya, 35×35cm

The surface is broken, making the model look bad.

I chose the grey paper. The color gives the paper some elastic behavior. The paper is smaller than I normally use to fold this model, but it's also thin, so there is no real problem here. I used a bone folder to strengthen the creases and the result is fine. I had very little problem with the open and close sink (step 37). I even managed to have sharp ends with the legs, but maneuvering many layers (folding the breast at step 85) is difficult. I needed to apply force with my fingernails to ensure that all the layers went into place and stayed there. The final result is good, the flying horse stands steady, and the wings are stable.

#### Owl by Katsuta Kyohei, 40×40cm

A decent result with Box pleating.

Box-pleating until the base was made was surprisingly easy. The elastic coating gives the paper the surface tension it needs, so it just snaps into place. Shaping the legs and talons requires more determination than usual, with many sinks. Reversing a fold is done easily with this paper, so forming the wing tips and feathers went well.

### Modular/Unit Origami

#### PowerPuff modular by Ilan Garibi. 30 units, 12×12cm

The perfect candidate for Kami!

I chose 3 colors, dark blue, light blue and green. Modulars should be the bread and butter for this paper, and it is. It's easy to fold, even with the issue of not going flat (see crane) It just works well! Reversing is easy, and for the puffing the paper is stiff enough at that size to hold the rounded shape very nicely. Still, some of the units gave me a fight. For assembly, the stiffness is very helpful. The final result is stable and easily holds its own weight.

### 3D models

#### Rat by Eric Joisel, 15×15cm

The rat cannot stand on its legs, the white side id highly disturbing.

This model was very easy to fold. The paper is thin, yet strong and stiff enough to do reverse folds. During the folding sequence the paper behaved like high end papers, but when finishing off you can see how simple it is. The legs are too weak to hold the complete model.

#### Fox Terrier by Francisco Javier Caboblanco, 20×20cm

Coloring the paper improved the stiffness of the paper.

This lovely simple model was folded in a flash, and from a smaller than usual square. Nevertheless, it was shaped very easily, resulting with very nice 3D effect. The paper may be a bit stiffer being hand painted, yet still I was surprised and enjoyed the final result.

#### Donkey by Kunihiko Kasahara, 30cm×30cm

A reasonable result, no more.

With so many layers, this was difficult to fold, but this paper is thin enough to cope with this task. The paper is not flexible, and if you miss a corner while making a crease, it's hard to fix it, if at all. Here, too, the legs are not strong enough to hold the donkey.

#### Peacock by Jun Maekawa Kasahara, 30cm×30cm

For this type of models - it works very well!

After the rat and the Donkey, I realized this paper is good for low-complex models, with many reverse folds. I chose this peacock and wasn't disappointed! The folding just went well and I was happy with the results.

## Final verdict

This summary must start with a sigh. Yes, it is the most popular paper for origami. For simple models, simple action models and modulars it is almost perfect. Yes, it's all true, but it does have a major flaw - it looks too simple.

Tessellations went better than I thought, and I am surprised to say, it is a good paper for such. 3D models went well, and it's even good enough for high intermediate and low end complex models.

And here comes the big 'But': It doesn't look good. The white side is all too visible, it can even be seen through cracks in the colored side. The strong, unnatural colors, the smooth and dull texture - does one really want to put so much effort in a complex model that doesn't look that good?

Still, there are modulars, and for those this is a very suitable paper. Here, using the small sizes and packs of 1000 sheets, you can fold and fold and fold, and be happy with what you get.

A word about this particular brand, since this is not a comparative test of many Kami manufacturers. We chose this brand for being accessible, with good cost benefit ratio, and we think it's got a good spot in the center - you can find some high end Japanese papers which are better, and sadly to say, too many with much lower quality.

In Flickr 2,165 results show the popularity of this paper. Many (I couldn't count...) are modulars, and simple animals. Here and there I found a tessellation, but rarely a complex model.

Bottom line: simple, too simple.

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Color palette Texture Aging Attributes
Memory Forgiveness Tensile Strength Bending Resistance
Kami 60 7.5cm, 15cm, 30cm 200+ Smooth, a bit shiny Many years 8 8 7 8
Ingres 90 B1, B2, A4 5 (previously 21) Rough Years 8 8 7.5 8.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 50 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm 8 hues Glittery; handmade look Unknown 8 8 9 8
Onion Skin 35 A4; Letter; 84.5×64.4cm White Cockled Many years 8 5 8.5 5
Kraft 35 15cm; 30cm; 48cm; 35cm; 40×60cm Light brown Smooth and a little shiny on one side Unknown 9 5 8 4
Crumpled 48-51 64cm by 64cm 28 hues, plus 12 pearled Bumps Less than a year 8 6 4 4
Stardream 110-340 (120 tested) 72cm by 102cm 33 hues Smooth and sparkly Years 9 9 7 9.5
Origamido 10-100 40cm by 50cm and more Very broad Varies Many years 5 to 9 6 to 8 10 2
Printer Paper 50-120 (80 tested) A0-A7, B and C equivalents, ANSI. Many others Mainly white, but many colors smooth and dull Few years 7 9 4 4
Japanese Foil 50 various from 3cm up to 50cm squares 12 colors smooth and shiny Many years 10 4 5 6
Tant 78 7.5cm; 15cm; 30.5cm; 35cm; 110×80cm 100 colors Mildly rough Many years 9 8 6 5
Elephant Hide 110 A4; 70cm×100cm 7 colors smooth Many years 10 7 10 10

Paper Classic Action Tessellation Complex Modular 3D Wet Folding Final score
Kami 8.5 8 8 7 9 7.5 7.5 8
Ingres 7 8.5 8 7 7 8 8 7.5
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 9 8.5 8.5 9.5 8 9 9.5 9+
Onion Skin 8 8 7.5 8.5 6 8 n/a 8
Kraft 8 7 8 9 6 8 n/a 7.5
Crumpled 8 7.5 8.5 8.5 7 8 n/a 8
Stardream 8.5 8.5 9 7.5 7.5 9 9 9
Origamido 8 7.5 7.5 9.5 n/a 9 n/a 9
Printer Paper 7.5 7.5 6 5 6 6.5 n/a 6
Japanese Foil 9 9 6 8 8.5 8 n/a 7
Tant 9 8.5 9 8 9 8 7.5 8
Elephant Hide 8.5 9 10 8 8.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

## Paper Review #11: Fabriano Ingres

Issue Number:
11
Ask non-origami people about paper mills, and someone will mention Fabriano. But do they also produce paper suitable for origami? Read our review on Ingres to find out.

Based in Italy, this mill is part of the Fedrigoni S.p.A. Group, the second largest special paper group in Europe. Their products vary from office paper, banknotes, drawing and fine arts paper, to handmade papers.

I found some interesting facts about paper on their website. The Arabs increased and spread the knowledge of papermaking throughout the west. And in the second half of the 13th century it reached Fabriano, a little town of the Marche inland. There they added three innovations which led to the rise of Fabriano as the cradle of modern papermaking: watermarking, the invention of the hammer mill (replacing the stone mortar and the manual wooden beater) and the use of animal gelatine for surface sizing, allowing for better writing.

They make a huge range of different papers. Here's what they say about Ingres:

"The particular grain of the surface and the highly light-fast colors are the principal characteristics of this laid paper. It is acid free and particularly recommended for deluxe editions, advertising (company presentations, posters, calendars, brochures, leaflets and catalogues), fancy paperwork and book binding applications, drawing (pastel, charcoal) and collage."

For some more information on Ingres see the Wikipedia article on it.

So, can we consider origami as "Fancy paperwork"?

## Properties

1. The old colors are vivid and still sold, but the new palette is very limited.

Thickness: The stated weight is 90gsm, same as the test result - 87-90gsm. The thickness measurements baffled us, ranging from 129 to 162 microns for the yellow paper. This is very thick for a machine made paper, and makes it unsuitable for our purposes. The white paper was much better at 130-139 microns. This is the same thickness as a dollar note!
You can also find 160gsm Ingres paper.
2. Sizes: B1 (707mm×1000mm) and B2 (500mm×707mm) are the most common sizes.
3. Colors: Like Elephant Hide, Fabriano has decreased the number of colors from 21 bright colors to only five: ivory (cream-brown), light brown, ash (grey), ice (bright white) and white.
4. Paper Coloring or Colorability: This is a print paper, and as such it handles color nicely. Applying water color (by Ecoline) on the white paper gave a crisp blue. One application of color did not show on the other side, but two did. The paper curled a little when wet, but when dried under glass it came out flat again with no change in its proportions.
5. Texture: It's slightly rough and reminded me of Tant. It has the same color on both sides. The lower side has a distinguished look of ripples - 6 straight lines in every centimeter. In the other direction there is a similar line every inch. The grain direction runs parallel to the 100cm side of the B1. The upper side is smoother and the lines are barely visible, but with a back light you can see the corrugated texture.

6. Photogenic: The old palette was very colorful and vivid. The unique texture brings warmth into the image and the corrugation on the surface is highly visible. It's like the finger-print of this paper.
7. Aging and Wear and Tear: The numbers in the test machine are high, 870-920, second only to Elephant Hide (~1130) and almost double that of printer paper (~550). Being acid free should promise years of vivid colors, but we do not have enough experience with it. 8.5 out of 10.
8. Memory: Good. Again, it reminds me of Tant. Reopen a crease and you can see and feel it. 8 out of 10.
9. Forgiveness: Good, almost very good. There is no problem in reversing a fold. 8 out of 10.
10. Tensile Strength: We refer here to the maximum stress the paper can undergo while being stretched or pulled. With the grain, the paper can hold up to 7.4 Kg before tearing; 3.4 against the grain. Those numbers are much like printer paper. 7.5 out of 10.
11. Bending Resistance: This section rates the amount of force you need to apply to get a sharp crease and how strong the paper is while being curved (like during the puffing of the PowerPuff unit). Curving is a strong point. The paper is sturdy and although there is a difference between directions, both give a formidable Powerpuff unit. The only problem is the ripples when you try to fold a straight line at a small angle to the ripple direction. All in all - very good. 8.5 out of 10.
12. Where to buy: This is not specifically an origami paper. It is mostly for painters, and as such, it is highly accessible. Just Google search for an art supply store near you.

## Test results

Nothing special here, the paper is folded easily but it is too thick to allow a sharp beak.

### Action model

Action models gives satisfying results.

This group benefitted the most from the Ingres paper and its stiffness. The difference between with or against the grain is easily distinguished.

#### Barking Dog by Gadi Vishne, 15×15cm

While pulling the bird's tail you can feel how the paper pulls the wings.

The frog jumps pretty high, thanks to the springiness.

### Tessellation

#### Pineapple tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 30×30cm

Considering its thickness, it works quite well with tessellations.

I was expecting some trouble with the along-the-grain folds of the grid, and was surprised to see that it was no big deal. Although the surface is wavy, and you can feel it by moving your fingernail over the bumps, it is hardly noticeable while folding . From time to time when you hit exactly the thickest part of the wave, you feel a bit more resistance, and the crease line may refuse to go straight. Reversing a fold is done easily, and you can feel that the paper "breaks" when changing the direction of the fold. During the pre-creasing, I found it hard to make diagonal lines, since the paper is not stiff enough to be broken on the corners of the grids squares. Finishing the pre-crease, you get the feeling the paper is too soft and pliable, more like a fabric than a paper. It also looks "messy" since all short creases tend to spill over, and every bend is visible. The first stage of the collapse went well, with the paper almost snapping into place. The second one was surprisingly even better, as it relied even more on the stiffness of the paper. In the end, the final result looked good.

#### Mystery tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 30×30cm

Back light highlights the unique texture.

Again, I had no real problem with the grid. The collapse went well, but the process left some evidence of fatigue in the corners of the crosses. However, the paper will yield to strong finger pressure.

### Complex

#### Pegasus by Satoshi Kamiya, 35×35cm

Complex models suffer from the thickness, disabling the fine details.

There is a nice resistance to pressure when folding in any direction other than parallel to the grain . You can feel it during the sink folds (step 37) but it was still comfortably easy. Going deeper into the more advanced steps, the shortcoming of its thickness start to appear. The body is hard to handle, and tucking in the belly layers was hard but still possible. The legs were not. I skipped the last small details of the hooves.

#### Owl by Katsuta Kyohei, 40×40cm

Like complex models, box-pleating models work good, but with the last steps of shaping.

The paper is thicker than usual, but can be handled. As with all box pleating models, there are a lot of sinking folds, and the paper is well-behaved here. It thickness is felt when pre-creasing the legs. Before the sink - when you make a sharp crease to one side - the inner layers are hardly affected. My patience and ability came to an end when I tried to force the lower feather pleats - it is too thick. The final result is satisfying, but not ideal.

### Modular/Unit Origami

#### PowerPuff modular by Ilan Garibi. 30 units, 12.5×12.5cm

It’s a hassle to cut 30 units, but worth the effort.

I chose 3 colors, white, yellow and blue. The stiffness is good for this model. I tried to go with the grain, against the grain, and to use both sides of the paper; all were folded easily . However the paper did tear when I tried to force it to the corner. Puffing the units was easier than usual, and the curve was sharp and clean. The assembly went like clockwork, tabs went inside pockets firmly, and the lock is strong. The final model is firm and holds its own weight easily.

### 3D models

#### Rat by Eric Joisel, 20×20cm

The rat suffered from the thickness of the paper.

The paper is very heavy. It's very nice for curves, but only for few layers. Not the best for the Rat. It's hard to make multi-layered fold with it.

#### Fox Terrier by Francisco Javier Caboblanco, 20×20cm

Just a bit of moisture helped to keep the legs in place.

I know it's a simple model, but it does give a hint about the 3D behaviour of the paper. The stiffness is apparent here, even with few layers, but the model benefits from that with the final moulding. Without wet folding the posture is almost as I want it, and with some moisture it is perfect.

#### Polar Bear by Giang Dinh, 24cm×24cm

Ingres is good for wet folding.

Shaping 3D models should be the best feature of this paper and it is. I used the 160 GSM paper (note that all other data is with respect to the 90 GSM paper) which is better suited to wet folding. The paper absorbs the water nicely if spread evenly (I am using Giang's method of a nasal spray bottle filled with water). It dries within 5-6 minutes. When dry it holds the new shape. However, with this thickness, some of the creases didn't require wetting at all.

#### Little Demon by Eric Joisel, 20×20cm

It's easy to shape faces and large surfaces into 3D.

The paper is very good for models with few layers. It is easy to shape and mould large surfaces.

#### Rose by Toshikazu Kawasaki, 20×20cm

The rose is easy to collapse, but it's hard to shape the petals.

The thickness of the paper helps to hold the creases accurate even when collapsing something like this model. On the other hand it's hard to open the leaves for the finish.

## Final verdict

As I go through this review, I see no excellence in any particular test or model. Strangely enough, this IS the strong point of this paper. It is a good paper, balanced, that can give good results in almost every type of fold.

Being thicker than other papers in the same weight group (around 90 GSM, like Tant and printer paper), it's stronger, can hold its own weight easily, and if you can find the lively old colors, it's a good buy. For traditional use it seems unnecessary to bother with measuring and cutting Ingres. On the other hand, action models will benefit from its properties. Complex models can be folded, but with difficulty, so for this Ingres is not highly recommended. Modular folding fares better since the paper has a lot of friction and a good weight to strength ratio. However, 3D models benefit most from this paper with its strong bending resistance and good behaviour in wet folding conditions.

Searching for origami images on Flickr appears to show that it is not one of the popular papers; only 60 images came up when searching for Ingres. Most are 3D models, masks and animals, but there are four tessellations and one Modular model. Widening the search with Fabriano I got 155 results.

Bottom line: best in none, good in all!

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Color palette Texture Aging Memory Forgiveness Tensile Strength Bending Resistance Final score
Elephant Hide 110 A4; 70cm×100cm 7 colors smooth Many years 10 7 10 10 9.5
Tant 78 7.5cm; 15cm; 30.5cm; 35cm; 110×80cm 100 colors Mildly rough Many years 9 8 6 5 8
Japanese Foil 50 various from 3cm up to 50cm squares 12 colors smooth and shiny Many years 10 4 5 6 7
Printer Paper 50-120 (80 tested) A0-A7, B and C equivalents, ANSI. Many others Mainly white, but many colors smooth and dull Few years 7 9 4 4 6
Origamido 10-100 40cm by 50cm and more Very broad Varies Many years 5 to 9 6 to 8 10 2 9
Stardream 110-340 (120 tested) 72cm by 102cm 33 hues Smooth and sparkly Years 9 9 7 9.5 9
Crumpled 48-51 64cm by 64cm 28 hues, plus 12 pearled Bumps Less than a year 8 6 4 4 8
Kraft 35 15cm; 30cm; 48cm; 35cm; 40×60cm Light brown Smooth and a little shiny on one side Unknown 9 5 8 4 7.5
Onion Skin 35 A4; Letter; 84.5×64.4cm White Cockled Many years 8 5 8.5 5 8
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 50 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm 8 hues Glittery; handmade look Unknown 8 8 9 8 9+

Note: with this review we have changed the score table! We are replacing memory, forgiveness, tensile strength and bending resistance with the suitability of the paper for a particular folding task. The previous 10 papers will be rescored appropriately.

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Colors Texture Aging Classic Action Tessellation Complex Modular 3D Final score
Ingres 90 B1, B2, A4 5 (previously 21) Rough Years 7 8.5 8 7 7 8 7.5

## Paper Review Special: A Third Opinion

Issue Number:
10
Eyal Reuveni reviews all 10 papers that Ilan Garibi and Gadi Vishne previously tested by folding Hideo Komatsu's lion from each paper type.

It took some time, but we knew - we must do something special for our 10th paper review!

Our reviews are all about getting to know different paper types and with hands-on experience reviewing their strengths and best areas for use. But we - Ilan and Gadi - are only two folders, so our reviews summarize only our point of view. And we know there are better folders than us out there. So we decided to approach a great folder, one of the best, and ask for his opinion on each of the papers we reviewed so far.

We wanted to set only minimal restrictions, namely that the papers were to be reviewed by folding the same model from the different paper types. The folder was free to choose which model he'd review the papers with. He could also pick a suitable paper size for each paper type, and paint and treat it as he thought fit. Then he was to conclude what he thought of each paper.

Having this idea, we started our search for a master folder, one with enough patience to fold the same model ten times. Luckily, we did not have to look far. We found the right candidate in our home country, in Israel.

Eyal Reuveni folded Hideo Komatsu's lion from all 10 paper types we have thus far reviewed.

## The Folder

Madagascar animals folded by Eyal Reuveni

Let us introduce Eyal Reuveni, an Israeli folder. A short glimpse into his flickr collections http://www.flickr.com/photos/49643647@N06/ will immediately show you why we chose him. He is one of the best technical folders in the world. He has folded numerous complex models, often several copies - be it from diagrams or CP. Great creators share their diagrams with him before publication to hear his opinion and to fix problems he finds.

Eyal started to fold at the tender age of ten, discovering origami with Robert Harbin's books. For many years he folded animals and insects from Montroll and Lang books. Later on, being exposed to many new creators through the internet, he fell deeper and deeper into the world of paper and complex origami. Looking for challenges, he started to decipher crease patterns in order to fold the most complicated models.

"I am attracted to the highly realistic models, with all the tiny details", he says. Today he lives in Shoham, Israel, in a house packed with thousands of models. Although he did create a few models, he prefers to focus on folding other people's models, the more complex - the better. His most admired creators are Satoshi Kamiya and Hideo Komatsu from Japan.

He also teaches origami, techniques and paper treatments.

Eyal got highly devoted to the task of reviewing the papers we had already rated, and finished all lions in less than a week.

## The Papers

### Elephant Hide

#### 100gsm, 45×45cm, original color of golden brown

Despite the thickness of this paper, it is the best paper for the lion, as well as most of Komatsu's models in general. Some steps were quite difficult to fold, but for that reason I chose this size of paper. The texture of this particular paper is wonderful, and the paper enabled me to shape it perfectly, without using wet folding, MC or any other treatment.

### Tant

#### 78gsm, 35×35cm, original brown color

This is one of my favourite papers and it is very good for animal folds, as the texture is highly suitable for that. Because of that, folding the lion with Tant was much more fun than most papers. Still, it is necessary to be very careful, since it might rip in the edges. I had to unfold the model partially before completing the base of the lion, in order to make some tricky sinks, and layers’ wrapping, steps that later on form the back legs and the mane. Shaping the finished model was easily done using a thin wooden role or the tip of a painter's paintbrush, and, like with Elephant Hide, without any special treatment to the paper.

### Japanese Foil

#### 50gsm, 35×35cm, silver foil and white side colored

I do not like folding with this paper. It is best to use it when glued to another paper (tissue, mostly). It was very challenging to fold the lion with Japanese Foil, since it wears down easily, and it is very difficult to reverse the creases. I painted the white side using acrylic water-based paint by “Folk Art” to change the white to copper color. It is necessary to fold very carefully and perfectly if you want to avoid the metallic foil side to be seen in the final model. The advantage is how easy it can be shaped, and how it holds this shape. The finished lion is very delicate and light.

### Copy / Printer Paper

#### 80gsm, 42×42cm, original color of white

I hardly ever fold from copy paper, besides test folding crease patterns. Luckily, this particular paper has a better quality than the usual copy paper. It was a bit challenging to make sinks and un-sinks without tearing the paper, but I managed to do it. Like Tant, it was necessary to unfold the paper partially to go through the rough stages of forming the inside layers of the back legs and creating the mane. Last touches of finishing were easy to make using my fingers to shape the mane. (IG: this is indeed a premium copy paper from Hadera Paper Mill).

### Origamido®

#### 40gsm, 35×35cm, original color of blue, colored

This is my first time folding from this expensive, high quality paper. I think it is best for folding insects and super complex models, and not for animals such as this lion. In order to make the paper easier to work with, and to enhance the texture, I applied water-based acrylic varnish. The paper is very strong and doesn’t rip easily. Still, it is not easy to fold a 3D animal from it. I had to partially unfold some steps in order to make close sinks doable. Shaping the lion was easy and the final model looks very nice (although a brown color would be more suitable). (IG: Origamido® was not meant to be used this way. Name your model and the manufacturer will prepare the right paper for you. Here we had to use what we had, a blue thin paper).

### Stardream

#### 120gsm, 42×42cm, original orange color

I really like folding from this paper, in spite of its thickness (120 grams!!). Folding such a complex model was no easy task: The paper tends to tear when there are too many layers, so I unfolded parts of the model more than other papers in order to fold the back legs and the mane properly. I worked slowly, so I managed to fold it perfectly. Shaping was very easy since the paper tends to hold the shape very well, and the result is very nice. The finished lion looks and feel like a statue, and the shiny texture enhance the details.

### Crumpled Paper (VOG Paper)

#### 50gsm, 32×32cm, original yellow color

This paper has a wonderful texture, but it is not an easy task to fold and shape it. I used water-based varnish to enhance the texture and to strengthen the paper a bit, and it was still no easy task. Changing creases form mountains to valleys and vice versa is hard, and the paper tends to rip in the middle (between the “bumps”). Despite all these problems, the final lion looks amazing, although a bit weak and delicate, and the texture gives it a more realistic look.

### Test Paper Kraft

#### 50gsm, 30×30cm, colored with metallic brown

Usually, I use this specific thin kraft paper mainly for complex insects, and not for animals. In order to get better color, and make the paper more comfortable for shaping and folding, I painted both sides with acrylic water-based paint, by “Folk Art”. Kraft paper is usually a great paper to fold from - it is very strong and doesn’t rip easily. Since this particular brand is so thin, I used a smaller square, which resulted with a well standing lion, without the legs spreading aside. I prefer a thicker Kraft paper for animals, but this one worked pretty good, too.

### Onion Skin

#### 35gsm, 30×30cm, gold colored both sides

This was, for me, the worst paper to work with, folding this complex lion. I usually use this paper only for color change models, when attaching it to other, usually handmade, papers. I had to paint both sides (gold this time), but the paper does not take paint well, so I had to repeat it several times. The paper is very weak, and feels like tissue paper. It is very difficult to make sinks or any tricky steps, and not easy to shape it nicely. The added layers of color made it a bit easier to shape. Still, the wrinkled texture of the paper might be good for a furry animal model.

### Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil

#### 50gsm, 30×30cm, original copper color

I really like folding with this paper. I used the copper - light brown paper, highly suitable for the lion. The metallic side left sparkling marks on my fingers while folding, but still this side enables me to hold the shape well. White marks appear on the light brown side while folding,, which reminds folding from greaseproof paper or baking sheet. The edges might rip if not folded very carefully. This paper is better for color change models than for one color models. It was very easy to shape the lion from this paper since it holds the shape very well.

## Final Verdict

There is no final verdict here. As I said before, there is no bad paper; it is just the wrong model. Choosing the right size, as well as the right treatment any paper can lead to awesome results! In contrast to our opinion, Onion Skin Paper scored low with Eyal. We all agreed on the great quality of Elephant Hide, as well as Tant and Nicolas Terry's Tissue Foil paper.

Bottom line: our deepest thanks to Eyal, a master folder!

## Paper Review #10: Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil

Issue Number:
10
Nicolas Terry offers Tissue Foil in his online shop. Read here how it stood up to our tests! A small hint: you will not be disappointed when folding with this paper.

Tissue Foil is a rare product. The combination of the stiffness and strong memory of the foil, with the look and agility of the tissue paper makes a promising paper to answer many of our paper-folding needs. For year now the only solution to obtaining tissue foil was to make your own and many still do.

To make some, you have to bond foil (sold as a kitchen product) with whatever Tissue paper you have. Truth be told, it's a lot of hassle, and it's difficult to obtain a perfect result. That is why we were happy to see what may be the perfect solution - Ready Made Tissue Foil.

It is sold exclusively in Nicolas Terry's online shop (origami-shop.com), and everything about it is kept secret. I know it is made by a Thai paper mill, but have no idea where, or what the ingredients are. All I can say about the paper is purely from our experience folding it, but is it good as it should be?

## Properties

Although all colors are sold under the same title, there are some major differences between the various colors, and sometimes between same colors but different sizes. This may be due to the manufacturing process or variations in the materials used. However, since it is sold together as a pack, we will consider that as one paper type, with variations.

1. A small, yet smartly chosen color palette, with red and black to come in shortly (image by Nicolas Terry).

Thickness: The weight is around 50gsm, but the paper is not as thin as you may think. The thickness is 115 microns, slightly thicker than printer paper (which weighs almost double: 90gsm).
2. Sizes: There is a good range of sizes to accommodate most origami needs. 15cm (approx. 6in), 20cm (approx. 7 3/4 in), 30cm (approx. 11 3/4 in), 40cm (approx. 15 3/4 in) and 60cm (approx. 23 1/2 in) squares are available.
3. Colors: There are 8 colors - gold, copper, silver, champagne, white, green, brown and light blue. Since it is a double color paper, each paper has a unique tissue side. The brown, silver and copper have the same color without the shiny effect. The white, champagne and some sizes of the gold have a white, half translucent, side that lets the foil side color filter through. The blue and green have white patches on the other side (see the crane), but they mostly keep the same color. I know it's confusing, but on the positive side is you have a reasonable variety of colors and effects to choose from. See in the image above how the same foil colored sides appear with different tissue sides.
4. Not all papers are made equally.

Paper Coloring or Colorability: It was only sensible to apply water color (by Ecoline) to the white paper, but it is too transparent for it to be colored on the tissue side only, since the color is highly visible from the foil side. The foil side is un-paintable, so unfortunately you can only use the original colors, or a completely re-colored white!
5. Texture: The tissue side is a bit rough, and has the look and feel of a high end handmade paper. The pulp was spread unevenly, as can be seen with some back light. The foil side doesn't appear to be a real foil, but more like a sprayed metallic color has been applied. This is a guess, but it is reinforced by the glitter that stuck to my fingers during folding. It also seems that every sheet or batch of sheets is soaked for a different length of time in the paint. This causes each color to behave a little differently. The brown is stiff while the Champagne is soggy. All other colors are in between, but more on the stiff side.
Supporting my guess about how it is made, the paper is slightly translucent. I put the white paper on a book and I could read the title. All the other papers allow a little light to go through (see the detail of the Pineapple tessellation).
Unlike foil, there is no sharp reflection from the foil side. Although it has a matte finish, it glitters in the light.

6. Photogenic: Without the shiny effect of a true foil, the camera loves this paper. the tissue side has a matt finish that looks really amazing and rich.
7. Aging and Wear and Tear: We have very little experience with this paper, so we don't have any aging information. Some reverse folds on the edges of the paper ripped, but only where the force was applied. The tears do not tend to continue since the Tissue side seems to have long fibres, but our feeling is that this paper is very strong and shouldn't have ripped.
8. Memory: Very good. Although not truly foil, this paper does feel like a true tissue-foil paper. Make a crease and it will stay. Flatting the paper after a crease, there is a visible line that you can feel by a finger touch. 8 out of 10.
9. Forgiveness: Good, almost very good. Unlike real Foil, it is easy to reverse a fold with this paper. Since there is a range of sturdiness here, the more sturdy papers behaves better in this property. 8 out of 10.
10. Tensile Strength: We refer here to the maximum stress the paper can undergo while being stretched or pulled. Tested by the machine, the value for this paper is 2.5 Kg, in one direction, with 7 mm stretch. In the other direction, the weight it can hold before tearing apart is 3.6 Kg, and it stretched by 6 mm! It's a bit stronger than Kraft and it got the highest score in stretching before the paper breaks. 9 out of 10.
11. Bending Resistance: This section rates the amount of force you need to apply to get a sharp crease and how strong the paper is while being curved (like during the puffing of the PowerPuff unit). Curving is a strong point. The paper is sturdy and behaves like it is much thicker. A sharp crease can be achieved easily with your finger nails and a visible white line appears, like with tracing paper. 8 out of 10.
12. Where to buy: There is only one place - Nicolas Terry's Origami-Shop. You cannot find it anywhere else.

## Test results

An overkill when used with simple models.

It felt like overkill - the paper is too good to be used for simple models as such. Nevertheless, if you can afford it - it is highly recommended.

### Action model

This paper work just fine with action models.

#### Barking Dog by Gadi Vishne, 15×15cm

The push mechanism worked just fine with the dog (made from Gold paper).

The bird, from Champagne paper held its wings, but looked a bit tired, so to speak.

I used the Brown paper for the frog, but I was unable to determine the direction of the grain by hand. It is the stiffest paper, and the frog I made performed many somersaults, but didn't jump very far.

### Tessellation

#### Pineapple tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 40×40cm

 Surprisingly, it works wonderfully well with tessellations. Back lighting shows that this is no real foil.

I decided to use the golden paper, with the shiny side up. I have never folded such an accurate grid. Usually the paper tends to distort while being folded with many parallel lines, but not this paper. There was little difference between “with” and “against and both were very easy to reverse. My hands were covered with golden dust during the process, which strengthens my theory about the foil side being sprayed. Pre-creases went perfectly well; the crease line on the tissue side is highly visible, and the diagonal lines tend to fall exactly on all the crossings of the grid. The collapse was easy with all the outer molecules. The centre molecules are usually difficult to handle, but here it was no big deal. Again the paper keeps its square proportions, so all molecules look the same and undistorted. The final result, as well as the process, is very satisfying!

### Complex

#### Pegasus by Satoshi Kamiya, 40×40cm

Complex models benefit mostly from the properties of Nicolas Terry's Tissue Foil.

I saw no point in making the sheet smaller, so 40 cm was the size. “Being a mythical creature”, my wife said, “go with the shiny side”, so I, obediently, did. Folding went easy, it's like the paper is helping you, going exactly where you want it to go. “Can it be that good?,” you ask yourself in the process. The sinking of the belly was done sharply. The shaping of the legs, head and tail went well, but for the tiny details of the hooves I still felt the paper was too thick.

#### Owl by Katsuta Kyohei, 40×40cm

 The tissue side textures are expressive and unique. Although this is a very strong paper, I got a tear at the tip of the left ear.

Yeah, it's not the usual size, but I didn't want to cut it. I had a difficult time choosing - not only the color, but also which side up. I chose the brown/bronze paper, and the tissue side up From the first fold, the experience was wonderful! It's a perfect paper for box pleating. Every step is just easy. Reversing a fold - a piece of cake. Open sink - no problem. Close sink - just the same. The wing tips are so sharp - what a pleasure!

#### Unicorn by Satoshi Kamiya, 30×30cm

Yet another complex model, we just couldn’t resist folding another.

The blue tissue foil gave me a fight in the last steps, since the unicorn is made with many layers of paper, as you can see in the head. The final shaping holds well, as one can expect from a paper that has foil in its name.

#### Dwarf by Eric Joisel, 30×30cm

It's easy to shape faces and small details.

Making the details of the dwarfs face asked for many stretches and pulls with a tweezers and no tears occurred. With the Champagne it was not easy to reverse folds. The final shaping holds well, as one can expect from a paper that has foil in its name.

### Modular/Unit Origami

#### PowerPuff modular by Ilan Garibi. 30 units, 12.5×12.5cm

The stiffness gives beautiful curves to the PowerPuff units.

I made the units using 4 colors. The brown behaved perfectly. Easy to fold, reverse fold and the puff went well. The curved surface of the unit is very strong. The light gold was too soft. It was folded alright but the tabs felt too weak. Assembling went well, and the final result is just lovely.

### 3D models

#### Rat by Eric Joisel, 15×15cm, 7.5cm×7.5cm

Not the right paper for the rats, but the result looks very nice.

I chose the wrong paper - the champagne color. It is too weak to hold the rat on its legs. This paper is softer than the other ones, and I found that reversing a fold is a bit tedious. But beside that all went just flowingly. It is an excellent paper to fold with.

#### Fox Terrier by Francisco Javier Caboblanco, 20×20cm

Just a little spray of water and the Fox Terrier stands firmly on its legs.

It is a simple model, and the paper made it even easier to fold. Shaping the ears, legs, head and tail using the foil advantages is easy, but I was surprised to see the legs open up to the sides more than I thought it would. That is why I decided to try some wet folding. Yes, wet folding on a foil paper seems to be useless but here it worked perfectly. Since I used the tissue side on the outside, it did absorb some humidity that allowed me to shape the legs at will. After just a few minutes it was dry and well shaped!

#### Polar Bear by Giang Dinh, 15cm×15cm

Curves and shaping are done easily without wet folding.

Foil papers are made to make 3D animals easily, so I tried to dry fold this model. For this model, and the way Giang teaches his models, there are no definite instructions: “fold around here to somewhere in between”. So I got the head too little, but the general shape as well as the legs and body contour went very well. The paper is strong and stiff enough to be shaped at will.

## Final verdict

This is definitely a favourite. One of the best papers we have ever tested or used. It's as if it was made for origamists. Hey, wait, it IS made for origamists, and it is doing its job perfectly. It's strong, yet thin; it is stiff, yet folds easily; it has a beautiful palette of colors, and it comes in all the right sizes.

Folding simple models is an easy task, as well as simple action models. For modulars it has the look as well as the friction to hold units together. 3D models benefits from its foil side for shaping and the Tissue side for the texture. For complex models it is highly suitable, making you a better folder. For tessellations it is surprisingly excellent. It's easy to fold an accurate grid and it has a “snap into place” collapse. Like any other foil paper it's not really suitable for wet folding, but for extra shaping a little spray of water works very well.

In flickr - 1,555 results came from searching for Tissue Foil, but most are handmade papers. I narrowed it down by adding “Terry” to the search, and got 229 images. In both cases Tissue Foil is used for 3D animals and complex models, many are insects. It is rarely used for complex stars, and neither real tessellation nor modulars have been spotted.

Bottom line: one of the best!

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Color palette Texture Aging Memory Forgiveness Tensile Strength Bending Resistance Final score
Elephant Hide 110 A4; 70cm×100cm 7 colors smooth Many years 10 7 10 10 9.5
Tant 78 7.5cm; 15cm; 30.5cm; 35cm; 110×80cm 100 colors Mildly rough Many years 9 8 6 5 8
Japanese Foil 50 various from 3cm up to 50cm squares 12 colors smooth and shiny Many years 10 4 5 6 7
Printer Paper 50-120 (80 tested) A0-A7, B and C equivalents, ANSI. Many others Mainly white, but many colors smooth and dull Few years 7 9 4 4 6
Origamido 10-100 40cm by 50cm and more Very broad Varies Many years 5 to 9 6 to 8 10 2 9
Stardream 110-340 (120 tested) 72cm by 102cm 33 hues Smooth and sparkly Years 9 9 7 9.5 9
Crumpled 48-51 64cm by 64cm 28 hues, plus 12 pearled Bumps Less than a year 8 6 4 4 8
Kraft 35 15cm; 30cm; 48cm; 35cm; 40×60cm Light brown Smooth and a little shiny on one side Unknown 9 5 8 4 7.5
Onion Skin 35 A4; Letter; 84.5×64.4cm White Cockled Many years 8 5 8.5 5 8
Nicolas Terry Tissue Foil 50 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm 8 hues Glittery; handmade look Unknown 8 8 9 8 9+

## Paper Review #9: Onion Skin Paper

Issue Number:
9
Originally developed to minimize paper weight for air mail, Onion Skin paper offers many advantages for use in origami.

Back in the days before contacting your overseas friends was a moment away by e-mail, we had air mail. You wrote on one side of a piece of very thin paper and then folded it over itself to show the envelope side of the paper. The idea was to minimize the weight for transporting by air.

Those envelopes were usually made from Onion Skin paper, a very light weight, but strong and durable, paper. It is made with a high percentage of cotton fibers, not wood pulp. It is an almost translucent paper and crisp to the touch like the outer skins of an onion, hence the name. A light strong, thin paper is not only useful for this airborne way of communicating but also for thick books such as the bible and the complete and unabridged version of the Oxford English Dictionary.

While researching the manufacturing of Onion Skin, the secret of the crumples in the Crumpled Paper was also unraveled. From Wikipedia: "The finish of onion skin paper is usually cockled, since it was air dried while it was being made. Cockled paper has a slightly wavy, handmade feel to it, along with a mildly dimpled finish. This property means that onion skin paper often crackles while it is being handled, as the sheets do not lie flat against each other. It also prevents leaves of onion skin paper from sticking to each other or other surfaces, a common problem with very light weight papers."

We got our stock of Onion Skin paper 4 years ago in a dusty warehouse in Jerusalem, at a bargain price of 100 USD for a pack of 500 sheets. The manufacturer of this particular brand of Onion Skin is the Barcino Paper Mill from Spain. You are unlikely to find this specific brand in your local paper store, but there are many other producers who still make this paper.

So, light and thin sounds like a perfect starting point for an origami paper, doesn't it? Here are the results of our tests.

## Properties

1. Thickness: The weight is 35gsm. The thickness is 46 microns, the thinnest paper we have tested so far. For comparison, Kraft is 48 to 53 microns, and Japanese Foil is 52 microns.
2. Sizes: The usual size is letter or A4. We got a unique size of full sheet - 84.5×64.4cm.
3. Colors: White, and only white.
4. .
5. Paper Coloring or Colorability: Applying water color (by Ecoline) gives good results, but you have to be careful to spread it evenly. After drying there is no shrinkage at all and the paper becomes stiffer, easier to fold. Check the Powerpuff blue units to see an example.
6. Source: http://www.watermarks.info/

Texture: Cockled paper is the perfect term. It's like the Crumpled paper, but the bumps are more subtle and they have a direction - with more length than width. The paper is semi-transparent and has a visible water mark. As always with white paper, playing with light and shadow with a back light gives interesting effects. This paper, being semi-transparent is even more impressive.

7. Photogenic: It is a white paper. I like the unevenness of the surface with animal models, since its more skin like. Images with back light or in black and white emphasize its beauty.
8. Aging and Wear and Tear: My first ever pegasus was made from this paper, as well as the Unicorn and the Smilodon, both by Kamiya. All three are still standing, firm and stable, on all four legs. The color hasn't faded, the white is just as it was on day one, almost 4 years ago. The tear machine gave slightly better results than for the Test Kraft, staying true to its reputation as a durable and strong paper.
9. Memory: Good. Make a crease and it will stay. Flatting the paper after a crease, there is a visible line, but you can not feel it with your finger, there is no evident bump. 8 out of 10.
10. Forgiveness: Fair. Like Crumpled Paper, when you try to reverse a fold it's hard to feel the fold line on the other side. It's almost like guessing it is there. It's easier to reverse a fold line against the fibers direction, as expected. 5 out of 10.
11. Tensile Strength: We refer here to the maximum stress the paper can undergo while being stretched or pulled. Tested by the machine, the value for this paper is 1.5 Kg, against the grain, with 4 mm stretch. With the grain, the weight it can hold before tearing apart is 4 Kg, and it stretched by 10 mm! Although the tensile strength is similar to Kraft, the stretch numbers are much higher, since it is made from cotton fibers, which are far more elastic than the wood pulp used for Kraft. 8.5 out of 10.
12. Bending Resistance: This section rates the amount of force you need to apply to get a sharp crease and how strong the paper is while being curved (like during the puffing of the PowerPuff unit). Curving is not a strong feature. Trying to keep the Powerpuff modules puffed gave unsatisfying results. A sharp crease can be achieved easily with your finger nails. 5 out of 10.
13. Where to buy: I do not know the address of this paper warehouse in Jerusalem, but since we bought the only package he had, it doesn't really matter. Being mainly for office use, many retailers sell it in the A4 proportion.

## Test results

Sharp results with simple models

As always with thin papers, the result is very sharp. But it's a crisp paper so when I pulled the wings apart, the center did not curve gently, but broke into uneven surfaces.

### Action model

#### Barking Dog by Gadi Vishne, 15×15cm

Pushing the back of the dog's head demonstrated the paper's high elasticity.

The bird will flap for hours with no sign of fatigue or weakness.

The frog did not jump very high. The paper isn't springy enough.

### Tessellation

#### Pineapple tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 34×34cm

Being half translucent and white, back light emphasizes its beauty.

During the grid phase, this paper reminded me of the thin Kraft paper from the previous review. It's hard to find and reverse the crease lines that go with the grain. Unlike the Kraft, the crease lines on the Onion Skin are hardly visible, which makes the next phase - the pre creasing - not an easy task to complete. The collapse was fairly good, since the paper is crisp and has some bending resistance despite its thinness. The final result looks elegant and clean. The back-lit image shows the grace of the white paper.

#### Double Wave tessellation by Ilan Garibi, 22×22cm

A simple method that creates organic forms benefits most from this paper's properties.

Since the Pineapple tessellation demonstrates the back light effect, I chose this tessellation to replace the Mystery tessellation. It was created for someone who wanted to present a beautiful antique ring in a jewelry exhibition and she found it as a perfect background. It is made by a very simple procedure of folding back and forth one line on two. This paper is perfect for this method. On a 22cm paper I made a grid of 64, with no particular problems. Folding was easy even with many layers that accumulated in the center, due to its thinness.

### Complex

This section should be its bread and butter, and it is.

#### Pegasus by Satoshi Kamiya, 30×30cm

The old model on the left shows how well this paper ages after almost 4 years.

My first try of the Pegasus was 4 years ago with this paper. I re-folded it for this review. I must say it went very well. Forming the base was easy, open sinking stage 37 slowed me down but only a little, and the zig zag in the wings could be folded with high density. I compared both old and new models, and the only difference is a yellowish color resulting from some MC I applied on the older model.

#### Owl by Katsuta Kyohei, 30×30cm

The cockled texture improves the appearance of the final model.

This thin paper really needed another complex model. Box pleating the body went extremely well, similarly for the wing tips. The talons require gentle, accurate reverse folding and shaping, stretching my abilities but not the paper's. The cockled texture gives a lovely finish to the model.

### Modular/Unit Origami

#### PowerPuff modular by Ilan Garibi. 30 units, 12×12cm

Colored units are easier to fold and shape.

Preparing the squares with an Envelopener caused some tears in the edges, since this paper is bumpy, or crumpled. Inside-reverse folds are difficult, and you need to fold it again on the other side to make it reverse correctly The 5 units I colored behaved much better, and reversing their folds was much easier. Puffing was not fun at all. It was difficult to get the shaping of the rounded parts and the inner flaps tended to open up again and again. Connection was a disaster. The paper is soft and I couldn't connect the units without the benefits of, well, glue. But glue raised another problem - if the paper gets wet, it curls quickly and becomes even softer. I had to put a tiny point of glue to avoid that problem. The final result is very airy and worth all the effort.

### 3D models

#### Rat by Eric Joisel, 20×20cm

A great paper for multi-layered models.

The paper is great for multi-layered models. Being so thin, it is easy to fold many layers. On the other hand, since it is a smooth paper, the layers tend to slip one on the other, so it is wise to pre crease each layer before. The final result is very satisfying but the paper is too weak to hold its weight.

#### Fox Terrier by Francisco Javier Caboblanco, 20×20cm

Apply as little as possible water to allow quick molding.

All went well, until the last step, going 3D. The model spread its legs wide, and nothing could hold them back. I sprayed some water and the paper sucked it all and become highly flexible; too much to be molded nicely. On the other hand, it dries very quickly and the final posture is very stable. This paper is not for wet folding, but to shape here and there it is great.

#### Omega Star by John Montroll, 20×20cm

This one sheet model benefit from the thinness of Onion Skin paper.

The classic Omega Star is a modular, but not Montroll's version. This model is made from one sheet, and requires a thin paper making Onion Skin a perfect candidate. I was not disappointed. Folding went well, and the final result is nice, although the spikes are not as sharp and straight as I wanted them to be.

### Wet Folding

#### Polar Bear by Giang Dinh

The paper is much too thin for wet folding the Polar Bear model.

## Final verdict

Four years ago, and with very little knowledge on paper, I disliked Onion Skin. It was too crisp, hard to reverse fold, and easy to tear by an accidental move of a sharp finger nail. Today, older and wiser, with many paper types and brands in my paper collection I can say it is one of the best thin papers I have. But you have to choose your project wisely.

For complex models it is great - it's thin, durable and will stay for many years in your display cabinet. I wouldn't use it for modulars, and for tessellation I will chose complex ones, or such that have very little flat surfaces between the molecules, to avoid that crumpled look. I found it perfect for Goran Konjevod's organic collection of models. Being so thin it is absolutely not for wet folding, but for shaping here and there - it's great. For traditional, simple models it will work just fine, much better than Printer paper, with less problems of aging, or losing its whiteness during the years. 3D models need the help of a tiny amount of moisture here and there. Coloring the paper makes it even better, giving some extra crispness for folds that go along the grain.

In flickr - almost nobody uses it or cares to state that they do. I found only 4 beautiful back-lit stars made by gailprentice, and my own models.

Bottom line: nostalgia has its benefits!

Paper Thickness (gsm) Size Color palette Texture Aging Memory Forgiveness Tensile Strength Bending Resistance Final score
Elephant Hide 110 A4; 70cm×100cm 7 colors smooth Many years 10 7 10 10 9.5
Tant 78 7.5cm; 15cm; 30.5cm; 35cm; 110×80cm 100 colors Mildly rough Many years 9 8 6 5 8
Japanese Foil 50 various from 3cm up to 50cm squares 12 colors smooth and shiny Many years 10 4 5 6 7
Printer Paper 50-120 (80 tested) A0-A7, B and C equivalents, ANSI. Many others Mainly white, but many colors smooth and dull Few years 7 9 4 4 6
Origamido 10-100 40cm by 50cm and more Very broad Varies Many years 5 to 9 6 to 8 10 2 9
Stardream 110-340 (120 tested) 72cm by 102cm 33 hues Smooth and sparkly Years 9 9 7 9.5 9
Crumpled 48-51 64cm by 64cm 28 hues, plus 12 pearled Bumps Less than a year 8 6 4 4 8
Kraft 35 15cm; 30cm; 48cm; 35cm; 40×60cm Light brown Smooth and a little shiny on one side Unknown 9 5 8 4 7.5
Onion Skin 35 A4; Letter; 84.5×64.4cm White Cockled Many years 8 5 8.5 5 8

## Crease Pattern: One-Cut Double Happiness

Issue Number:
8
by Erik Demaine, Martin Demaine, Liping Ma, Patsy Wang-Iverson
This paper presents a crease pattern for one-cut double happiness.

The Chinese character for double happiness (Fig. 1) can be obtained with a template that requires several cuts (Fig.2). A question that arises from this template is: is it possible to obtain double happiness with one cut? Conveniently, Erik Demaine (ED), Martin Demaine (MD), and Anna Lubiw had published a theorem for answering this question (Demaine, Demaine & Lubiw, 1998; see also One-cut theorem ; a video lecture is available at: Video lecture ; for additional information, see Demaine and O’Rourke, 2007).

Figure 1. Double happiness (see Ma, 2008, p. 152).

Figure 2. Template for double happiness (see Ma, 2008, p. 153).

ED and MD quickly produced a crease pattern, thus allowing us, in celebration of the Year of the Dragon, to present you with the one-cut double happiness (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. Crease pattern for one-cut double happiness. Click on the picture to download a PDF.

Just as achieving a state of happiness requires a great deal of work, so the one-cut double happiness may pose a challenge. Folding the crease pattern is not difficult, but with regular, 20 lb. paper, the final folded paper, which has 69 layers, is about one cm thick when tightly compressed (Fig. 4) and cannot be cut easily (unless one has access to a laser cutter?).

Figure 4. Folded crease pattern for double happiness.

Folded tracing paper can be cut with scissors, but the tracing paper jams in the copier. Robert Lang (Lang, 2011) suggested taping the leading edge of the tracing paper to regular paper and feeding the paper through the copier manually. One of us (PW-I) tried this method at Staples, and it worked like a charm! But getting ED and MD’s double happiness crease pattern on tracing paper is just the beginning. To obtain a presentable one-cut double happiness requires precise folding and cutting, which PW-I did not achieve, as seen in Figure 5.

Figure 5. One-cut double happiness on tracing paper.

For those without ready access to a copier with manual feed, one can try the following: pre-crease regular paper containing the crease pattern and then re-crease the paper after placing a sheet of tracing paper on top. Remove the regular paper; refold the tracing paper and cut. Thus far, the final tracing paper product leaves much to be desired, but with each attempt, the result has improved.

If you are interested in trying to make the one cut double happiness using other approaches, and with better results, please share your strategies and outcome with your fellow readers of The Fold.

Patsy Wang-Iverson is affiliated with the Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Foundation, Erik and Martin Demaine are affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Liping Ma is a collaborating independent scholar.

### References

Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, and Anna Lubiw (1998). “Folding and Cutting Paper”, in Revised Papers from the Japan Conference on Discrete and Computational Geometry (JCDCG'98), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 1763, Tokyo, Japan, December 9–12, 1998, pages 104–117.

Erik D. Demaine and Joseph O'Rourke (2007). Geometric Folding Algorithms: Linkages, Origami, Polyhedra. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Erik D. Demaine, Geometric Folding Algorithms: Linkages, Origami, Polyhedra (Fall 2010), Fall10 Lectures (retrieved 1/11/12).

Robert J. Lang, Thinnest paper, sharpest scissors email thread, OUSA-members email list, 12/21/11; langorigami (retrieved 1/11/12).

Liping Ma (1999). Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.

Liping Ma (2008), A Tour of Chinese Culture (10th grade Chinese language textbook). Palo Alto, CA: Liping Ma Press, pp. 152-153.